At present the concept of Networked Society as a whole is weakly framed in the scientific investigations. Close to the subject of NS we can find a lot of research works in mathematical modeling of social phenomena pointing to the similarities between social system dynamics and synergistic effects such as phase transition in physical and chemical systems, proposing application of technical control theory to society, etc.
We assume that comprehensive understanding of laws that govern society as a complex selforganized system hiding unavoidable phase transitions can give us proper tools for optimal structural and functional design of society and minimizing possible risks.
Nonlinearity is a common feature for wide range of CAS that offers us a proper generalization perspective. Mathematical network theory, synergetics nonlinear dissipative system theorycomputational sociology system dynamics and agent based modeling complete an adequate toolkit for understanding the behavior of social system. Findings The main result of the research is an adequate definition of Networked society suitable for future theoretical and empirical investigation using available modeling tools.
Also there has been shown that growing amount of anonymous cmg akcijų pasirinkimo sandoriai accountable feedbacked communication between corporate and personal agents leads to emergence of qualitatively new structures in social cmg akcijų pasirinkimo sandoriai.
Practical implications The research offers an initial framework for mathematical modeling and practical or empirical measuring of the important transitional parameters of social system that can provide the relevant tools for system optimization during the transitional period. Keywords: Networked society, Phase transition, Social networks, Collaboration software, Aggregated intelligence, Synergetics, Anonymity, Accountability, Omnicracy ,Socialins technologijos ikiai, galimybs sprendimai m.
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In this work, the IS Unit examined the socio-economic impact of social computing applications with the aim of informing policy makers. The major arguments presented are related to the empowered role of the user, the possible creation of new Digital divides, the potential of social computing for growth of employment and its disruptive role on existing practices, power relations and policies. In this cmg akcijų pasirinkimo sandoriai, the scope and significance of social computing will be explored through issues related to learning, identity and networks and communities.
Through these areas, some of the major works conducted of the IS Unit will be presented. Keyword: social computing, information society, European Union, economy. Introduction Intangible assets are an important source of business value and are not generally included in the standard financial reporting.
Several models have been developed and applied in order to better monitor these resources, particularly intellectual capital reports Edvinsson and Malone,complementary financial reports and scoreboards Eurostat, ; Lopes, ; Lev, or Balanced Scorecard programs Kaplan and Norton, Broadly, intangibles are nonmonetary resources, without physical substance, but embodying relevant future economic benefits IAS The disclosure of these resources can mitigate information asymmetry and improve market liquidity Boone and Raman, Intellectual property IP typifies the most visible side of those resources as embodiment of the integrated research and development effort.
Business and market developments require their valuation and disclosure through additional reports as well as continuous diagnoses of their real benefits and returns. This paper aims to highlight the need to monitor the macroeconomic innovation effort and diagnose its linkage with business returns.
It constitutes a basic approach about intellectual property as a key driver towards better strategic and financial performance achievements. Intellectual property measurement and valuation Intellectual property patents, trademarks and copyrights, among othershave been seen by economic agents as no more than legal instruments or as basic tools for business. Many companies have explored this type of asset, managing it as a potential competitive weapon and source of unexpected returns Germeraad, ; Taghaboni-Dutta et al.
Intellectual property management has been reflected in the way added value has been created. We refer to registered IP, codified or un 10 ,Socialins technologijos ikiai, galimybs sprendimai m.
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And, as stated by GermeraadIP strategy should be strongly integrated with innovation strategy. The identification of competitive advantages emerging from IP claims for to identification of certain key drivers, namely research and development expenditure ratios and innovation processes inside the organizations.
These drivers allow companies to gain competitive advantages in market and financial terms. According to Rivette and Klineinvesting in IP allows companies to increase their expected future returns and aligned qith other structural capital allows companies to achieve important strategic and financial returns Edvinsson and Malone, Its translation into competitive advantage can: Protect core technologies and business methods; Tap patents for new revenues; Boost research and development and branding effectiveness; Anticipate market and technology shifts Reduce costs; and Attract new capital and enhance corporate value.
This assertion, broadly irrefutable, is gradually being assumed as a strategic principle, drawing our attention to internal innovation activities and processes. Measuring it is not an easy or feasible task.
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Several methods have been followed in order to complete that task: approaches based on income or in market or, at least, measured at its historical cost. The expected returns still remain the most important corollary, enabling companies to include those assets in their financial statements, unless, as sometimes, they are used, only for internal purposes.
In the last decade, in Europe, moderate increases have been observed, particularly in the business enterprise sector. This type of expenditure is seen, in this scope, as the creative cmg akcijų pasirinkimo sandoriai developed on a systematic basis in order to achieve higher standards of knowledge by the business enterprise sector.
As regards, the poor levels observed in the other countries, in particular for the ones that have joined the European Union in the last decade, new and stronger macroeconomic policies are required, that, in the medium and long run, can support the new business models development and generate increased competitive advantage. Patent registration is, probably, the most visible indicator of innovation management.
According to Willigan : Companies wishing to exploit 11 ,Socialins technologijos ikiai, galimybs sprendimai m. The objectives of such an incentive program are to channel invention activity into areas where the current patent portfolio needs improvement and to identify areas of future technology that companies need to play in in order to be successful in the knowledge-based world of the future.
Patent applications refer to the requests for legal protection, directly submitted to the European Patent Office EPO or carried out under the patent Cooperation Treaty, independently of their acceptance.
Registrations are allocated to the country of the inventor except in the case where more than one country is involved. A fractional method of counting is used in this particular case. This indicator also grants a simplistic overview of the European scenario about the real trend towards the strategy implementation as stated in Lisbon, in At a microeconomic level, IP should be measured and disclosed through complementary business reports.
Patents, copyrights, internal software developments, brands and even strategic alliances, are enablers of business protection and source of granted returns. We note the same trend if we refer to the requests submitted to the EPO by country in and requests were registered by Sweden and Finland, respectively.
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These results are aligned with the assertions stated by Taghaboni-Dutti Patent analysis can be used to monitor some trends in order to understand the innovative activities developed inside the organizations, diagnose the internal weaknesses and strengths and interpret the market demand. If we compare the information stated in graphs 1 and 2, the European scenario did not change significantly, since Research and Development ratio has not increase, far away form the goal stated, from European Union, for Other European countries, in particular the last ones that have joined the European Union, still present weaknesses that require technological innovation policies and procedures if they are to achieve a fair and sustainable alignment.
Without these developments, we shall continue to face the difficulties arising from a Europe developing at different speeds. Moreover, potential competitive advantage may be gradually and permanently lost in the digital and global economy. Graph 3 Innovation dvejetainių parinkčių patikrinta strategija 13 ,Socialins technologijos ikiai, galimybs sprendimai m.
This result seems consistent with evidences achieved by Chan et al. Different evidences were obtained by Lev and Sougiannis relating insider gains. However, and as mentioned by Boone and Ramanthe disclosure of innovation activities can contribute for the asymmetry information mitigation and liquidity rates, despite their poor impact in the cmg akcijų pasirinkimo sandoriai periodical revenues.
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In the European scenario, the turnover derived from innovation seems quite residual, except in some countries with poor rates of innovation intensity. Probably, the cycle of innovation and its impact in the financial statements will take a long time to become effective. Or, the innovation effort is only the way ahead to achieve a strategic a cmg akcijų pasirinkimo sandoriai positioning.
Final remarks The intangible asset concept is, according IAS 38, associated with expected future returns. It is viewed as an identifiable non-monetary asset without physical substance, controlled by companies and viewed as source of future returns.
In this respect, one of the most visible sources of intangible assets is patent registration, supported by the intensity of research and development.
This evidence is consolidated at a later date by the number of patents effectively registered and granted by the international agencies. Innovation management mokymo dvejetainiai variantai, therefore, a source of competitive advantage for national economies in general and for the business sector in particular.
However, especially in Europe, we cmg akcijų pasirinkimo sandoriai a lack of innovative ideas that will lead to broad application-based patents that can maximize a companys investment in research and development. The European evidence in those domains clearly indicates a need for additional macroeconomic policies. References 1.
Boone, Jeff P. Chan, Louis K. The stock market valuation of Research and Development Expenditures, Intangible Assets: Values, Cmg akcijų pasirinkimo sandoriai, 14 ,Socialins technologijos ikiai, galimybs sprendimai m. Contractor, Farok J. Contractor Ed. Edvisson; Leif; Malone, Michael S. Intellectual Capital: The proven way to establish your companys real value by measuring its hidden brainpower, London: Platkus.
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Germeraad, P. Integration of intellectual property strategy with innovation strategy, Research Technology Management, pp. Kaplan, R. Lev, Baruch and T. Lopes, Ildio T. Towards a complementary intangibles reporting approach, Measuring Business Excellence, Vol. Ramanathan, K. Rivette, Kevin and G. Shapiro, Carl and Hal R. Taghaboni-Dutta, F. Willigan, Walter L. Contractor EditorLondon: Quorum Books.
The multiple insights achieved reinforce the paradigm that intangibles are the main structural support for 15 ,Socialins technologijos ikiai, galimybs sprendimai m. Companies and countries should monitor and report their innovation cycles in order to increase their turnovers. We searched for a practical interaction between the number of patents effectively registered in the main international offices and its innovation turnover rate.
Originality An overview is provided concerning innovation expenditures and its contribution to the intellectual property standards.
Discovering and learning about intellectual property can reflect the companies and nations adaptive capacity, both internally and externally. However, the goal set out in the Lisbons strategy betfair futbolo prekybos sistemais not aligned with the year-to-date innovation turnover rates. Europe is still driving innovation through an idiosyncratic policy on the way to a theoretical convergence and tenuous innovation turnover standard.
Introduction One of the greatest challenges in Moldova since early s is providing sufficient Foreign Language FL education so as to meet the growing demand especially after a long period of time when specialized study of FL was seriously neglected. Before the USSR collapse the applied study of foreign languages was carried out mostly at Technical State University of Moldova, Agrarian University of Moldova, Moldova State University and Medical University where students were offered semesters of foreign language courses in terms of years of university curriculum.
In those times the FL prekybos diapazono išsiskyrimo strategija was focused more on language structures, thus most of the cmg akcijų pasirinkimo sandoriai graduates were not able to conduct a free conversation in a foreign language studied.
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- Leonas Jurša.
Under the impact of globalization Moldavian scholars reconsidered the approach to the study of foreign languages. Today in Moldova FL teaching is heavily stressed on language use and learners needs. Due to the effects of the growing importance of global English in professional context there was registered the rise of English for Specific Purposes ESP teaching at all levels.
However, it is not always possible to offer good quality of ESP at Moldovan universities as the FL teaching-learning conditions are not the same throughout the Republic.
The universities from the capital have better didactic and technological resources which open the way to interactivity, progress and application of internetbased learning in ESP teaching. Maria del Pilar Garcia Mayo, Cmg akcijų pasirinkimo sandoriai scholars R.
Mitchel and F. Myles define the ESP 17 ,Socialins technologijos ikiai, galimybs sprendimai m.